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Kuliah I

Lecture I

Human Inquiry and Science

Upon completion of this chapter, the student should be able to:

  1. Define and illustrate both agreement reality and experiential reality.
  2. Differentiate epistemology from methodology.
  3. Define and illustrate causal reasoning and probabilistic reasoning.
  4. Differentiate the scientific approach from the ordinary human inquiry approach to causal and probabilistic reasoning.
  5. Describe the roles of tradition and authority as sources of secondhand knowledge.
  6. Define and illustrate each of the following errors in inquiry: inaccurate observation, over-generalization, selective observation, and illogical reasoning.
  7. Define theory and indicate how it differs from philosophy or belief.
  8. Define aggregate data and present a rationale for why social scientists examine aggregates.
  9. Differentiate independent and dependent variables by definition and example, and show how they contribute to understanding causality.
  10. Define and compare induction and deduction as ways of developing theories.
  11. Define and give examples of quantitative data and qualitative data.

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