Human Inquiry and Science
Upon completion of this chapter, the student should be able to:
- Define and illustrate both agreement reality and experiential reality.
- Differentiate epistemology from methodology.
- Define and illustrate causal reasoning and probabilistic reasoning.
- Differentiate the scientific approach from the ordinary human inquiry approach to causal and probabilistic reasoning.
- Describe the roles of tradition and authority as sources of secondhand knowledge.
- Define and illustrate each of the following errors in inquiry: inaccurate observation, over-generalization, selective observation, and illogical reasoning.
- Define theory and indicate how it differs from philosophy or belief.
- Define aggregate data and present a rationale for why social scientists examine aggregates.
- Differentiate independent and dependent variables by definition and example, and show how they contribute to understanding causality.
- Define and compare induction and deduction as ways of developing theories.
- Define and give examples of quantitative data and qualitative data.
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