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Exercises for Midtest

Quiz Exercises to master your Midterm Examination
Chapter 1

1. A study reported in American Sociological Review (1994) was entitled “Race Differences in Sexual Activity Among Adolescent Women.” The independent variable was probably:
a. women.
b. race.
c. There is no independent variable.
d. sexual activity.
e. adolescence.

2. In comparison to nonscientific inquiry, scientific inquiry:
a. is an activity where we are less concerned about making mistakes.
b. is a semiconscious activity.
c. guards against all errors.
d. None of these choices are true.
e. takes special precaution to avoid error.

3. The two pillars of science are:
a. idiographic and nomothetic explanation.
b. logic and observation.
c. variable and attributes.
d. tradition and authority.
e. qualitative and quantitative data.

4. Georgette observed a few preschool children at play and saw what she thought was a pattern in all preschool children’s play behavior. She committed which error?
a. overgeneralization
b. selective observation
c. immature observation
d. inaccurate observation
e. illogical reasoning

5. Vanesha wishes to use church attendance as a factor in her study, with the categories “none,” “some,” and “a lot.” Church attendance and the categories are known, respectively, as:
a. variables.
b. method and theory.
c. attributes and a variable.
d. a variable and attributes.
e. theory and method.

6. Nora observed people in her Sunday School for several months and then determined if there was a pattern in the different responses of men and women. Which one of the following approaches is reflected?
a. transductive
b. applied
c. inductive
d. deductive
e. reductive

7. Which one of the following represents an aggregate of people?
a. One church, with about 65 members.
b. A few people in each of a few churches.
c. Individual students on five campuses.
d. A collection of 18-year-old students asked about their voting patterns.
e. A kindergarten classroom.

8. Igor studied students at his community college and noticed that a slim majority carried no books to class. Then he saw a new set of people in the distance and concluded before seeing them that they would definitely be carrying books to class because someone should do that, especially since he had just seen students without books. Which error in inquiry is reflected?
a. overgeneralization
b. inaccurate observation
c. illogical reasoning
d. selective observation
e. immature observation

9. In any given study, gender is a(n) ________, whereas being male or female is a(n) ________.
a. variable; attribute
b. choice; definition
c. definition; choice
d. attribute; variable
e. variable; choice

10. When individuals rely on their own experiences as a basis for knowledge about the world, they are using:
a. personal inquiry.
b. knowledge from authorities.
c. traditional information.
d. none of these choices.
e. a scientific approach.

Quiz Exercises to master your Midterm Examination
Chapter 2

1. Which of the following statements about paradigms is FALSE?
a. Paradigms determine the kinds of facts we will discover.
b. Paradigms shape the kinds of observations we are likely to make.
c. All of these choices are TRUE about paradigms.
d. Paradigms shape the conclusions that we draw from facts.
e. Paradigms determine whether we look at micro or macro concerns.

2. Professor May wants to learn how grandparents define their role when they become the guardians of their grandchild. May asks grandparents questions like, “How did you come to have custody of your grandchild?” and “Do you feel more like a parent or a grandparent?” Which of the following paradigms is May probably using?

a. structural functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interactionism
d. ethnomethodology
e. social Darwinism

3. Grounded theory:
a. requires the researcher to begin constructing theory by first observing aspects of social life.
b. is an inductive method of theory construction that requires the researcher to begin constructing theory by first observing aspects of social life.
c. is a deductive method of theory construction that requires the researcher to begin constructing theory by first observing aspects of social life.
d. should always come before empirical research.
e. is the only element necessary for accurate research.

4. Walking with an open umbrella on a beautiful day or using hands to eat mashed potatoes are techniques used by ________ to understand the social world.
a. conflict theorists
b. social Darwinists
c. ethnomethodologists
d. structural functionalists
e. symbolic interactionists

5. Axioms are:
a. hypotheses.
b. assumed to be true.
c. fundamental assertions on which the theory is grounded.
d. fundamental assertions on which theory is grounded that are assumed to be true.
e. concepts.

6. Which of the following statements best fits Dunlap’s definition of a hypothesis?
a. Gender is related to jury verdict.
b. Gender is negatively related to jury verdicts.
c. Gender is positively related to jury verdicts.
d. Women are positively related to jury verdicts.
e. Women are more likely to vote to acquit on jury verdicts than are men.

7. Indira wants to study how people make sense of the delays they experience in their daily lives. She asked people to keep diaries about such delays and how they responded to them, particularly how they made sense of them. She also encouraged them to sometimes violate others’ expectations in terms of responding to delays. Which paradigm is she using?
a. early positivism
b. structural functionalism
c. symbolic interactionism
d. ethnomethodology
e. conflict

8. Which one of the following statements best summarizes the role of deduction and induction?
a. Deduction is the preferred approach.
b. Induction is the preferred approach.
c. In practice, scientific inquiry involves the use of both at the same time.
d. In practice, scientific inquiry involves an alternation between deduction and induction.
e. In practice, scientific inquiry involves primarily one or the other approach.

9. Interest in the problems affecting the homeless population leads Sara, a researcher, to live among the homeless for several weeks in order to observe and study their behaviors. She has used the ________ paradigm in conducting her research.
a. ethnomethodology
b. critical race
c. feminist
d. structural functionalism
e. social Darwinism

10. Operationalizing a concept refers to:
a. interpreting the results from the study of a concept.
b. specifying how a concept is related to other concepts.
c. clarifying the meaning of the concept.
d. comparing one concept to another.
e. selecting indicators to measure the concept.

Quiz Exercises to master your Midterm Examination
Chapter 3

1. The primary ethical research issue raised by the Milgram study was:
a. the examination of obedience as a topic for study.
b. the willingness of people to harm others when “following orders” required it.
c. the effects of the methods on the teacher.
d. the effects of the methods on the pupils.
e. the administration of electrical shocks to the pupils.

2. Ethical obligations to one’s colleagues in the scientific community:
a. All of these choices reflect the ethical obligations owed to colleagues.
b. require researchers to report only the positive discoveries.
c. require that technical shortcomings and failures of the study be revealed.
d. encourage researchers to ignore negative findings.
e. encourage researchers to describe their findings as the product of a carefully preplanned analytical strategy.

3. Which of the following techniques of data collection is MOST likely to make a guarantee of anonymity difficult?
a. mailed questionnaires
b. secondary data analysis
c. unobtrusive measures
d. interviews
e. The data collection technique does not effect the guarantee of anonymity.

4. Sally, a conflict theorist, and Ralph, a structural functionalist, decide to set their personal values and views to the side for the duration of a joint research project. By setting aside their personal values and views they are most clearly trying to:
a. behave ethically.
b. enhance their intersubjectivity.
c. assure their right to privacy.
d. avoid harming subjects.
e. maximize any political findings.

5. The main reason that codes of ethics exist are that:
a. people are naturally unethical.
b. the directors of the professional associations require and enforce them.
c. researchers would be both unwilling and unable to make ethical decisions without them.
d. both the state and federal governments require them.
e. ethical issues are both important and ambiguous.

6. The only partial exception to the lack of political norms is the generally accepted view that:
a. a researcher’s personal political orientation should not interfere with or influence the research.
b. governments should not dictate codes of ethics.
c. professional associations should incorporate more about politics in their codes of ethics.
d. politics should not be discussed in social research because no one can agree on what should be done.
e. none of these choices.

7. Cameroon did a study in which he could identify a given person’s responses but promised not to do so publicly. He employed:
a. informed consent.
b. confidentiality.
c. anonymity.
d. value-free research.
e. deception.

8. Who serves on Institutional Review Boards?
a. study participants
b. students
c. faculty members
d. university president and administration
e. legislators

9. What should have Laud Humphrey done in his “Trouble in the Tearoom” study to uphold ethical standards?
a. Allowed subjects to decline to be studied.
b. Debriefed subjects.
c. Promised confidentiality.
d. Revealed his identity.
e. Remained nonpolitical.

10. Professor Smith examines the dating behaviors of college students. Smith decides to track the dating behaviors of college students throughout their college careers. She decides to begin her research using her introductory class. After explaining the study, she assures students that their responses will be confidential. The students complete her survey during class. Her research most clearly impinges on:
a. the value placed on anonymity.
b. voluntary participation.
c. value-free reports of the data.
d. no harm to participants.
e. deception.

Quiz Exercises to master your Midterm Examination
Chapter 4

1. If a researcher was conducting a study of women’s attitudes toward abortion, the unit of analysis would be:
a. the society.
b. attitudes.
c. the women’s attitudes.
d. the woman.
e. each abortion.

2. There is a strong correlation between the number of firefighters that show up at a fire and the amount of damage produced by the fire. The size of the fire influences both the number of firefighters and the amount of damage. This illustrates that the relationship between the number of firefighters and the amount of damage is:
a. causal.
b. a real relationship.
c. caused by a third factor.
d. not correlational.
e. non-spurious.

3. Professor Stone designs a study to examine the effect of a teenage pregnancy on young women’s career choices. Stone wants to interview a sample of teenage women during their pregnancy, after the baby’s birth, and once a year after that for a ten year period. Stone is using a:
a. trend study.
b. cross sectional design.
c. cannot tell from the given information.
d. panel study.
e. cohort study.

4. To look at changes in the average age of marriage for men and women in the United States, Professor Torme studied the U.S. Censuses over a period of decades. Torme was doing a:
a. none of these choices.
b. panel study.
c. cross-sectional study.
d. trend study.
e. cohort study.

5. Yugorsky studied five fifth-grade classes over three years to determine how friendship patterns established in the fifth grade affected friendship patterns in the eighth grade. He studied the same group of students over time, but not necessarily the same individuals. Which design did he use?
a. trend
b. cohort
c. panel
d. e. cross-sectional
e. none of these choices

6. exploratory studies are done for all EXCEPT which one of the following purposes?
a. to test the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study.
b. to satisfy the researcher’s curiosity and desire for better understanding.
c. to develop the methods to be used in any subsequent study.
d. to sort out the ethical implications of a study.
e. to clarify global definitions of words/phrases.

7. The best example of reductionism?
a. Reba used only one theory in her study of cheating.
b. Sam reduced his sample of church members from 500 to 200 so that it was more manageable.

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Roberto explained suicide entirely in terms of psychological factors.
d. Greta reduced cooking time for making a stew from 1 hour to 45 minutes.
e. Steve used only cross-sectional research in his study of teen alcohol consumption.

8. Attrition of study participants is most critical for which of the following designs?
a. cross-sectional
b. group
c. panel
d. cohort
e. trend

9. A second researcher decides to select a LARGE sample of citizens in a community to interview before a new factory is built in the community. This researcher does not believe there is a need to re-interview these citizens at a later date. This researcher has engaged in ________ research design.
a. cohort
b. age
c. panel or longitudinal
d. cross-sectional
e. trend

10. If a researcher is interested in studying the effects of different training regimens on a team’s performance, the unit of analysis in this study is:
a. the different training regimens.
b. the team member.
c. the team.
d. the researcher’s perception of performance.
e. the coach.

Quiz Exercises to master your Midterm Examination
Chapter 5

1. Reliability involves:
a. alll of these choices are correct.
b. ensuring accuracy.
c. ensuring that your measure measures what you think it should measure.
d. whether a particular technique applied repeatedly to the same object would yield the same results each time.
e. ensuring precision.

2. A questionnaire contained the item “educational level completed” with responses of grade school, junior high school, high school, college, graduate degree, and other. A researcher asked subjects to check the appropriate response. The researcher is measuring:
a. a nominal variable.
b. indirect observables.
c. constructs.
d. validity.
e. direct observables.

3. Professor Shipley developed a new test to measure IQ. He claimed that using his test, someone with an IQ of 180 would be considered twice as intelligent as someone with an IQ of 90, and that someone with an IQ of 90 was three times as intelligent as someone with an IQ of 30. Shipley’s test treats IQ as a(n):

a. ratio variable.
b. nominal variable.
c. None of these choices
d. ordinal variable.
e. interval variable.

4. Jeremy can’t decide whether he should ask people whether they “very strongly agree,” “agree,” “disagree, “very strongly disagree” or whether they “agree” or “disagree” with statements about the war in Iraq. Jeremy is dealing with the problem of:
a. whether to use single or multiple dimensions.
b. the range of variation.
c. whether to use single or multiple indicators of a concept.
d. whether to use a ratio or ordinal measurement.
e. whether to use a ratio or interval measurement.

5. Myrna measured class level of students at her university, which has graduate programs with these attributes: first-year, sophomore, junior, and senior. Which quality of measures does this measure lack?
a. Must be ratio level.
b. Divergent validity.
c. Must be a real definition.
d. Must be mutually exclusive.
e. Must be exhaustive.

6. Elmer worked hard to establish the meaning of the term prejudice for his study on students. He consulted the literature and colleagues who have studied prejudice in order to come to an agreement about what the term means. Elmer engaged in:
a. dimensionalization.
b. conceptualization.
c. validity.
d. what must be corroborated by colleagues.
e. reification.

7. Nora developed a definition of adjustment to college in such a way that this concept represented what researchers in the field have come to agree upon as the concept’s meaning. Nora developed a(n):
a. nominal definition.
b. real definition.
c. divergent validity.
d. operational definition.
e. conceptualization process.

8. Nelson wanted to validate his measure of driver awareness. He did so by checking with the Department of Motor Vehicles a few years after giving his measure to young teens to see how many tickets they had received. Which type of validity does this example reflect?
a. content
b. criterion-related
c. convergent
d. face
e. construct

9. When you are presented with interval-level data, such as IQ scores, you may use the following for statistical analyses:
a. mode and median only.
b. mode.
c. mean.
d. median.
e. All of these choices.

10. David wants to study the effect of age on voting behavior. He samples adults of all ages, and asks how likely they are to vote in the presidential election: very unlikely, somewhat unlikely, somewhat likely, and very likely. These categories fall under the ________ level of measurement.
a. nominal
b. ordinal
c. interval
d. ratio
e. undecided

Quiz Exercises to master your Midterm Examination
Chapter 6

Professor Duncan administered a questionnaire containing the following items:
Please tell me how you feel about your supervisor’s leadership style on the following three items:

valuable —-:—-:—-:—-:—- worthless

easy —-:—-:—-:—-:—- demanding

critical —-:—-:—-:—-:—- uncritical

1. Duncan was using a:
a. Bogardus social distance scale.
b. Thurstone scale.
c. Likert scale.
d. Semantic differential scale.
e. Guttman scale.

2. The coefficient of reproducibility for a Guttman scale should be at least:
a. It doesn’t matter.
b. 0.70
c. 0.8
d. 1.00
e. 0.90

3. A friend of yours is trying to develop an index to reproduce respondents’ patterns of responses. You tell your friend to:
a. construct a Guttman scale.
b. It cannot be done.
c. construct any one of these choices.
d. construct a Thurstone scale.
e. construct a Likert scale.

4. If an index fails to predict strongly the external validation items, then:
a. either the index does not adequately measure the variable in question OR the validation items do not adequately easure the variable.
b. the validation items do not adequately measure the variable.
c. you should attempt to use the index anyway to see what will happen.
d. the index does not adequately measure the variable in question.
e. the index does not adequately measure the variable in question AND the validation items do not adequately measure the variable.

5. Which of the following statements about typologies is FALSE?
a. They are often used when researchers wish to summarize the intersection of two or more variables.
b. They are nominal composite measures.
c. It is easy to analyze a typology as a dependent variable.
d. All of these statements about typologies are TRUE.
e. It is easy to analyze a typology as an independent variable.

6. A ________ scale is a measurement technique for determining the willingness of people to participate in social relations–of varying degrees of closeness–with other kinds of people.
a. Likert
b. Thurstone
c. Semantic differential
d. Bogardus
e. Guttman

7. Which of the following can be used in both qualitative and quantitative research?
a. indexes
b. scales
c. Thurstone scales
d. Likert scales
e. typologies

8. Serrina wanted to analyze the intersection between two variables–school type (public or private) and school location (urban or rural)–in her study of student values. Which approach should she use?
a. coefficient of reproducibility
b. semantic differential
c. typology
d. scale types
e. index construction

9. The coefficient of reproducibility indicates:
a. how reproducible scores on later items are given scores on earlier items.
b. how valid the scale is.
c. how reproducible the scale score is knowing the scores on the original items.
d. the probability of reproducing the same results again in future studies.
e. the percentage of original responses that could be reproduced by knowing the scale score.

10. When you have chosen the best items for your index, you must next:
a. operationalize the included items.
b. assign scores for particular responses.
c. define the included items.
d. analyze scores for particular responses.
e. figure out how to handle missing data.

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