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Official Questions for Your Preparation of Final Exam!

Note that in the Actual Questionnaire, either the number of question or the order of answer options can be changed!

 

  • Which of the following statements about stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample is TRUE?
    • Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample eliminates the need for simple random sampling.
    • Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample is an alternative to either random or systematic sampling
    • Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample eliminates the need for probability sampling
    • Stratifying a population prior to drawing a sample is most useful for studying a homogeneous population
    • All of these statements are FALSE
  • You are doing research on hospital personnel–orderlies, technicians, nurses, and doctors. You want to be sure you draw a sample that has cases in each of the personnel categories. You want to use probability sampling. An appropriate strategy would be:
    • stratified sampling.
    • accidental sampling.
    • simple random sampling.
    • quota sampling.
    • cluster sampling
  • A summary description of a variable in a sample is called a:
    • Parameter
    • Confidence level
    • Variable
    • Confidence interval
    • Statistic
  • Becky determined that the mean age of all students at her community college, the population she wished to study, was 22.3 years old. This value is known as a(n):
    • Confidence level
    • Statistic
    • Parameter
    • Inference
    • Confidence interval
  • Stratification is based on which principle?
    • Subgroups are contingent on main group characteristics
    • A homogeneous population produces samples with smaller sampling errors
    • The greater the proportion of a population selected, the lesser the error.
    • A large sample produces a smaller sampling error.
    • It is better to select multiple smaller samples than one large sample.
  • Maggie sampled 25 members in her church by taking every fifth member. There are 200 members in the church. What is the sampling ratio?
    • 5
    • 0,25
    • 200
    • 0,5
    • 0,125
  • In her research project, Ella wants to study the processes involved in lesbian partners adopting children. She starts off by interviewing lesbian couples who have adopted in the past, and they in turn, give her names of other lesbian couples who have adopted. The process by which Ella gets her sample is called:
    • convenient sampling
    • quota sampling
    • systematic sampling
    • snowball sampling
    • judgmental sampling
  • In probability sampling, the maximum sampling error depends on:
    • sample size.
    • sample size and confidence level only.
    • diversity of the population
    • confidence level.
    • All of these choices are TRUE
  • Without randomly assigning subjects, a researcher administers the experimental stimulus to the experimental group and then measures the dependent variable in both the experimental and comparison groups. This design is known as the:
    • one-shot case study.
    • one-group pretest-posttest design.
    • classical experimental design.
    • posttest-only control group design.
    • static-group design.
  • Preexperimental designs:
    • control for most sources of internal invalidity.
    • control for most sources of external invalidity.
    • are weak designs for determining causality.
    • are highly recommended by Campbell and Stanley.
    • are excellent for drawing causal inferences.
  • A researcher administered a math test to a single group of 9th graders in September. During the school year the students received an intensive program designed to improve their math skills. In May the math test was again given and the math scores improved. A major problem in this research is that the researcher failed to control for:
    • testing.
    • selection biases.
    • maturation.
    • history.
    • The researchers failed to control for all of these choices.
  • The difference between the experimental and control groups should be that the:
    • control group receives the independent variable and the experimental does not.
    • experimental group receives the dependent variable and the control group does not.
    • experimental group receives the independent variable and the control group does not.
    • control group receives the dependent variable and the experimental group does not.
    • Nothing; these are synonyms that refer to the same group.
  • Sammy did an experiment on children in a classroom. He measured their social anxiety on Monday, randomly assigned half of them to be taught yoga on Wednesday, and measured their social anxiety again on Friday. The half of the children who were not taught yoga are known as the:
    • posttest.
    • independent variable.
    • experimental group.
    • prettest.
    • control group.
  • Sammy did an experiment on children in a classroom. He measured their social anxiety on Monday, randomly assigned half of them to be taught yoga on Wednesday, and measured their social anxiety again on Friday. Measuring the children’s social anxiety on Friday is the:
    • control variable.
    • posttest.
    • prettest.
    • independent variable.
    • experimental group.
  • Cornelia used the student directory at her school to select a random sample of 100 students for her laboratory experiment on decision making. She then used a quota matrix containing the variables she felt would most likely influence decision making, and assigned people within each matrix cell alternately to the experimental and control groups. What method of assigning subjects to the experimental and control groups was used?
    • randomization
    • matching
    • simple random selection
    • probability sampling
    • nonprobability sampling
  • Latona did an experiment at a military barracks over the space of a few months to examine the effect of group size on group morale. He randomly assigned soldiers to the experimental and control groups and did a prettest and posttest. At the time of the posttest, several soldiers realized that they received the same questions on the pretest, and used the same answers they had originally given on the pretest even though their morale may have changed. Which source of internal invalidity does this example reflect?
    • instrumentation
    • history
    • maturation
    • testing
    • mortality
  • The loss of subjects over the duration of an experiment is known as ________.
    • statistical regression
    • testing
    • mortality
    • maturation
    • history
  • An experiment where neither the physicians nor the subjects know who was receiving the real vaccine or the substitute is called a:
    • secure experiment.
    • double-blind experiment.
    • non-confounding experiment.
    • post hoc experiment.
    • true experiment.
  • One of the most important natural abilities of good interviewers is their ability to:
    • determine very quickly the kind of person the respondent will feel most comfortable with.
    • dress in a fashion similar to that of the people being interviewed.
    • pry into the respondent’s personal life.
    • probe for responses.
    • rephrase questions in their own words.
  • Interview surveys have a number of advantages over mail surveys; which of the following is NOT one of those advantages?
    • There is generally a smaller number of “don’t knows” and “no answers.”
    • All of these choices illustrate the advantages of the interview.
    • There is a smaller number of relevant responses given to a question.
    • Higher response rates.
    • Observations can be made.
  • Asking a subject “Did your children go to college?” after the respondent told you that he/she had no children violates which of the following criteria in questionnaire construction?
    • Avoid negative items.
    • Questions should be relevant.
    • Double-barreled questions.
    • Questions should be open-ended.
    • Avoid biased items.
  • The best format to use for responses to items is:
    • underlines.
    • empty spaces.
    • circles.
    • There is no best format.
    • boxes.
  • Boyce used this question in his survey of college students: “What will be your Social Security benefit amount upon retirement?” What is the major weakness with this item?
    • Respondents are not competent to answer the item.
    • It is biased.
    • It is double-barreled.
    • The topic is not relevant.
    • It is too long.
  • Regarding sensitive issues and complicated issues, which one of the following is correct?
    • Use interviews for both.
    • Use self-administered questionnaires for complicated issues and interviews for sensitive issues.
    • Use self-administered questionnaires for sensitive issues and interviews for complicated issues.
    • Use questionnaires for both.
    • The use of either questionnaires or interviews depends on the rapport the interviewer is able to form with the interviewee.
  • According to Survey Sampling Inc., which of the following statements is generally NOT acceptable in conducting online surveys?
    • DO offer to share selected results with the participants.
    • DO use plain, simple language.
    • DO limit studies to 30 minutes.
    • DO be aware of technical limitations.
    • DON’T force the respondent to scroll down the screen for the URL for the study location.
  • Professor Donnelly wants to conduct a training session for new interviewers working on his project. Donnelly asks you to review his plan for the training session. After reviewing the plan you should tell Donnelly to exclude ________ from the session.
    • practice interviews where the interviewers interview each other
    • a description of what the study is about
    • a discussion of specifications
    • practice interviews on people that Donnelly’s selected for the new interviewers
    • You should tell Donnelly to include ALL of these choices in the training session.
  • Among the advantages of field research is(are) that it:
    • involves the uniform application of precise operational definitions.
    • yields precise descriptive statements about a large population.
    • produces definitive conclusions.
    • is an extremely reliable technique.
    • allows for the modification of research design.
  • Fielding is interested in the stratification system in the United States and how it is perpetuated through time. Fielding decides to examine the experiences of minority students who seek college counseling in high school. He interviews minority students in four high schools to learn whether their personal experiences tell him something about stratification in the U.S. After interviewing the minority students Fielding interviews nonminority students, school administrators, guidance counselors, teachers, parents, and social workers at the four high schools. Fielding is probably using a(n) ________ approach.
    • ethnography
    • case study
    • participatory action research
    • institutional ethnography
    • ethnomethodology
  • Sara wanted to learn about battered women. She entered the world of a battered women’s shelter and lived with the women in order to fully learn about the views of these women. She wanted to write a detailed and accurate description about the lives that the women reported. Which of the following approaches best describes Sara’s research paradigm?
    • institutional ethnography
    • participatory action research
    • naturalist
    • grounded theory
    • ethnomethodology
  • As noted by Kvale, in a complete interviewing process a researcher will:
    • thematize.
    • verify.
    • transcribe.
    • design.
    • All of these choices are correct.
  • Which of the following is FALSE regarding qualitative field research?
    • All of these choices about qualitative field research are TRUE.
    • Field research is well suited to studying behaviors within their natural setting.
    • Field research is well suited for quantitative analysis.
    • Field research is well suited to studying attitudes within their natural setting.
    • Field research is well suited to studying social processes over time.
  • Stephanie studied new mothers to learn how they coped with their new roles. She looked for patterns, themes, and common categories in her observations, following a systematic set of procedures. Which approach did she use?
    • the extended case method
    • case study
    • grounded theory
    • participatory action approach
    • ethnomethodology
  • Piet studied the homeless in his community and began to serve as a resource to them by providing contacts for social services. The homeless people he studied defined their problems, defined the remedies desired, and helped design the research that will help them realize their goals. Which paradigm did Piet use?
    • case study
    • participatory action research
    • naturalism
    • institutional ethnography
    • ethnography
  • If the members of the “Motor Gang” do not know that they are being observed by a police officer, the observational method is considered ________.
    • complex
    • simple
    • natural
    • reactive
    • non-reactive
  • Harry, an ethnographer, lived among the homeless in Queens, New York, for a year, and has recently written a book on his observations. Based on his experiences that the homeless took care of each other in Queens, he concludes that homeless people will take care of one another. In stating that conclusion, Harry has committed the:
    • ecological fallacy.
    • group fallacy.
    • ethnographic fallacy.
    • aggregate fallacy.
    • individual fallacy.
  • In a focus group, typically ________ people are brought together in a private, comfortable environment to engage in a guided discussion of some topic. The subjects are selected based on their relevance to the topic under study.
    • 15-25
    • 5-15
    • 25-50
    • 1-5
    • There is no limit to how many people allowed in a focal group.
  • Which of the following modes of observation does NOT require the researcher to intrude to some degree on whatever he or she is studying?
    • experiments
    • survey
    • complete participant observation
    • All of these choices require the researcher to intrude to some degree on whatever he or she is studying.
    • complete observer
  • After examining the FBI Crime Reports for a 30-year period, Professor Hall claimed that the incidence of rape has increased. After examining the same reports, Professor Shine claimed that the reporting of rape, not the incidence of rape, has increased. This illustrates:
    • pre-testing.
    • the need to replicate existing statistics.
    • the problem of reliability in using existing statistics.
    • the ecological fallacy.
    • the problem of validity in using existing statistics.
  • Francesca developed conceptual models of family structures that she discovered in various decades, and these models were composed of the essential characteristics of family structures. She employed:
    • comparative analysis.
    • verstehen.
    • content analysis.
    • ideal types.
    • corroboration.
  • Gigi did a content analysis of school board meeting minutes to determine who was the most influential. She developed an initial hypothesis that men carried more power, but she then searched her data to find all the cases that would contradict her initial hypothesis. This process is known as:
    • systematic deduction.
    • corroboration.
    • analytic deduction.
    • analytic induction.
    • systematic reduction.
  • Content analysis is not appropriate for:
    • diary entries.
    • email messages.
    • evaluating census data.
    • newspapers.
    • want ads.
  • What type of sampling is used in content analysis?
    • none of these choices
    • simple
    • stratified
    • random
    • all of these choices
  • In conducting content analysis research, ethical issues can arise from:
    • protecting the privacy of individuals/organizations.
    • analyzing the data.
    • all of these choices.
    • how we collect the data, and protecting the privacy of individuals/organizations.
    • how we collect the data.
  • For the last 15 years, Jenny tracked the divorce and marriage rates in the United States. Jenny is doing a:
    • logistical study.
    • monitoring study.
    • cost-benefit analysis.
    • needs assessment.
    • None of these choices is correct.
  • Roberto wanted to examine the impact of newly enacted seat belt laws. He did so by comparing deaths due to car crashes before and after implementation of the laws. He did this in multiple states and compared the changes in deaths with states that did not implement seat belt laws in order to more clearly understand the impact of the new laws. Which design did he use?
    • cost-benefit analysis
    • a multiple time-series design
    • a longitudinal design
    • a true experimental design
    • a survey design
  • Nimby did an evaluation research study of the impact of after-school programs within schools on the delinquency rates of pre-teens. As part of his study, he examined the changes in availability of after-school programs outside of schools as well as changes in enforcement of delinquency laws. This analysis of factors outside his specific evaluation research design is known as:
    • doing time-series analysis.
    • doing cost-benefit research.
    • doing social indicators research.
    • doing field research.
    • measuring experimental contexts.
  • Nimby did an evaluation research study of the impact of after-school programs within schools on the delinquency rates of pre-teens. He was careful to identify what he meant by after-school programs. As part of his study, he examined the changes in availability of after-school programs outside of schools as well as changes in enforcement of delinquency laws. His careful attention to identifying what he meant by after-school programs reflects:
    • cost-benefit analysis.
    • specifying the population.
    • specifying the intervention.
    • verifying validity.
    • time-series analysis.
  • Nimby did an evaluation research study of the impact of after-school programs within schools on the delinquency rates of pre-teens. He was careful to identify what he meant by after-school programs. He was also careful to identify the children for whom the program was appropriate. Specifying for whom the program is appropriate is known as:
    • verifying validity.
    • social indicators research.
    • a response variable.
    • specifying the population.
    • cost-benefit analysis.
  • By the end of an outcome evaluation, researchers should be able to:
    • suggest ways that programs like the one being evaluated can better work together.
    • determine the specific costs the program has spent.
    • answer questions about the program’s success or failure and ways that the program or policy can better serve its target population.
    • identify reasons why the program or policy was designed the way it was.
    • identify groups not served by the program or policy.
  • The ________ uses the nature of the radio or television dramas and their characters to effect change in social issues and behaviors.
    • monitoring program
    • needs assessment
    • sabido methodology
    • cost-benefit analysis
    • media methodology

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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